Mud-House Architecture

Architectural Photography

Photo documentation of Tribal village in the state of West-Bengal, India.




Housing pattern is independent in terms of space. Wall covered compound consist of mainly three structures with one grain storage tank.













Grain Storage System




Plaster and colour system

Walls are made out of cow dung,mud and stones.


A thin layer of mud-plaster coating on wall for colour base.




Significance of Pots

Round shape pots are used for making and storing of locally made liqueur.


To obtain eggs of the pigeon, damaged pots are set on the roof of the house for their nesting.





photo documentation



The Structure of Tazia mainly built out of bamboo material. Overall hight of this structure goes as high as 125ft. to 135ft. Maker of Tazia also use paper and electrical lights for decoration purpose. It take almost one moth for a team of nearly 30 skilled people to complete this structure for procession.


‘Ashtukli’ – (Block)
Single piece of bamboo structure known as ‘Ashtukli’ and multiple pieces of various size piled-up on each other in acceding order for vertical stack.












Final Set-up


Electrician removing wires across the streets to make empty vertical space.


‘Dandi’ – Four heavy wooden blocks being setup for lifting the structure








Text part……








barabar cave

INDIA’S oldest surviving rock cut caves

photo documentation

barabar cave


The hills of Barabar located in Makhdumpur Block of Jehanabad district, Bihar, India, 24 km north of Gaya. Land scape is similar to Hampi and vegetation is dry.



Area surrounded by massive rocks and some of them having rock cut of stupas. Some of them having sculptures of human postures.


Some rocks carved with steps for better grip on sloppy stones specifically near cave area.


Barabar Caves

The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India, mostly dating from the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), some with Ashokan inscriptions, located in Makhdumpur Block of Jehanabad district, Bihar, India, 24 km north of Gaya.

These caves are situated in the twin hills of Barabar (four caves) and Nagarjuni (three caves) – caves of the 1.6 km distant Nagarjuni Hill sometimes are singled out as Nagarjuni Caves. These rock-cut chambers date back to the 3rd century BCE, Maurya period, of Ashoka (r. 273–232 BCE) and his grandson Dasharatha Maurya.

CAVE OF LOMAS RISHI dscf6187dscf6186dscf6189dscf6190

Most caves at Barabar consist of two chambers, carved entirely out of granite, with a highly polished internal surface and exciting echo effect. The first chamber was meant for worshippers to congregate in a large rectangular hall, and the second, a small, circular, domed chamber for worship, this inner chamber probably had a small stupa like structure, at some point, though they are now empty.



photo documentation

“A single thread of hope is stronger than all the chains that bind you.”
―Jeffrey Fry

Thred temple-1

It is with this hope that the circular migrants’ settlement on the developing #BRTC track of #Surat, keep coming back, bringing along with them their cultures. A beautiful display of which was witnessed amidst  one of the busy roads of Surat, where some of these migrants, from Kolkata, who are into road construction,had built a temporary temple of threads to celebrate Vishvakarma day.


A simple cotton thread can be woven to form a piece of cloth, but here these migrant laborers had used it to create a beautiful #temple of some 7 feet high, to honor their god Vishvakarma. #Vishvakarma is a Hindu god, who is considered to be the divine architect, who have constructed many architectural marvels and fabulous weapons for the gods.




The temple took some two days to complete and was constructed by the group effort of all workers residing in that particular area. Their material choice varies every time. This time they used threads, with a #bangle being the centre for all the sides. It is from the bangle that the thread seems to radiate out to the number of nails pinned in the wooden structure erected in the form of a temple. They had also used artificial flowers to aesthetically decorate the visible wooden columns. After the worship this temporary abode is left abandoned.





photo documentation




#Dharavi is located in central part of Mumbai and considered as biggest slum of Asia, having 540 acres of area coverage. A part of this area is called ‘Kumbharwada'(area of potter) and it comprise of 20 acres of land and having 400 families as active potters. 70% of total requirement for earthen pots and #diyas in #Mumbai is supplied by this families. This trade was brought by Gujarat based potters in 1932 and they got settled here. Since then this families has set-up detailed infrastructure in such congested place and the practice is still going on.



Apart from importing mud from out side the slum, whole production is done in available area. The block of dry mud comes from outskirts of Mumbai and they treated in small poll near by internal walk way of slum. Once mud become raw material, modeling of object take place which is followed by baking process in oven. Baked object get colour and final packaging for dispatch.



DSC_2036 copy

Mud processing area adjoining to internal walk way

DSC_1989 copy

Precast small diyas drying out side house

DSC_2016 copy

Mud stacking on slum walk way

DSC_2021 copy

Precast stock

DSC_1999 copy

Multiple ovens in a row.



photo documentation




Odisha, a costal state of India, situated on eastern side of the country, by the Bay of Bengal. This region is an ancient land with rich history portrayed through its magnificent #architectural monuments.


DSCF5275 copy

The temples of Odisha exhibit majestic glory. An Oriya temple usually consists of a sanctum, one or several front porches, usually with pyramidal roofs and a dancing hall. The #Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneswar and #Jagannath Temple at Puri form the most exquisite example of this kind of architecture.



The Odiya architecture is different from other parts of India. Where temples are intricately carved with marvellous architectural design, on the other hand housing structures are much simpler and basic. Though there are some #Maths(where sadhus can stay) and Dharamshalas which have remarkable colonial style structure. In Puri, every house has painted graphic of Lord Jagannath at the entrance.


DSCF5280 copy




DSC_1153 copy

#Konark- sun temple built in 13th century by King Narasimhadeva, the temple is designed in the shape of a colossal chariot with seven horses and twelve wheels, carrying the sun god, #Surya, across heavens. Temple located 35km north of Puri and 65km from #Bhubaneswar.


DSC_1777 copy

There are 18 caves in #Udayagiri hill. These caves were excavated by #Kharavela and his successors in 1st century B.C. The activity continued till the time of A.D. 10th – 11th century. Most of the caves consists of a row of cell. This cells are dormitories. In later periods some of the cells were converted in to shrines with minor alterations.


DSC_1457 copy

Fishing occupation is one of the major income source for the costal villagers. Fishermen sail in to Bay of Bangal for daily fishing activity.




Some low cost mobile shops of vendors, who carry their goods from one place to another, on this innovative set-up.


photo documentation

Performance of a high risk drama where cars and bikes ride on vertical wooden wall.

The show involves a temporary cylindrical structure about 25 feet high and 30 to 40 feet in diameter built of hardwood planks. The audience stands upon the platform built around the circumference of the #structure and gaze down into the well where the #motorcycles or cars drive.

The Performers

The team of performers generally comprise of 5-7 riders who are 20 to 25 years old. Before becoming a skilled rider, one must start his career as a helper. The most important task during the learning process is to over-come vertigo and develop courage.

Performance of the riding stunt in the well involves perfect co-ordination among all the riders. Overtaking one another, riding shoulder-to-shoulder, free hand riding, #zigzag riding, pop-out from the moving car are some of the famous stunts performed by these stunt-men on the vertical wall of the wooden well.

Generally two-stroke bikes are used for the performance as they have much more power-full engine. Rider’s bikes have no silencers because they want to attract the audience with the loud noise and there are no front brakes as applying them even by mistake can be #fatal.


From the first look it seems as a big water tank. Barrel-shaped wooden cylinder, ranging from 30 to 40 feet in diameter and 25 to 40 feet in height, inside which motorcyclists perform stunts. An average well is constructed with more than 5000 wooden #planks, which is installed by  20 to 30 people and costs up to Rs 2 lakhs. The final constructed structure allows 200 plus #spectators to stand on the platforms that stretch around its upper edges and a circular metal railing about five feet high keeps the spectators from falling in.


Crowd Puller

Apart from making noise through the muffler of bike, to pull crowd in, the show has #transgender dancer who dance on #Bollywood item songs and attract crowd to the ticket counter.

RAVANA, demon-king of Lanka

photo documentation


According to Hindu mythology, demon king Ravana is the prime  antagonist character in the epic #Ramayana. In all versions of the Ramayana, he is vanquished and killed by Lord #Rama.

#Dussehra, is one of the most important Hindu festivals where effigies of Ravana that are burnt at  mark the triumph of good over evil.

The Making

The task of making effigies of #Ravana involves multiple artists and craft. Skilled craftsmen take care of the job of making complex head and body structure, using bamboo splinters.Structures are then decorated with Colored papers, different #effigy makers have their different styles.

Character Performance

#Ramlila, is a performance of then Ramayana epic in a series of scenes. One of the most important character in this epic is demon Ravana, which is performed with elaborate costume and make-up by artist.

The Execution

On the last day of ‘Ramlila’, (the day celebrate as Dussehra) effigy of Ravana set for final drama.

World’s oldest city, VARANASI

travel photography

_ABC2259 copy

Varanasi is consider as world’s oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. It is also known as Banaras and #Kashi. This magnificent city is situated on the banks of the #Ganges. Hindus believe that Varanasi is an auspicious place to die – dying and being cremated here offers #moksha, liberation from the endless cycle of rebirth.

Ghats of Banaras

The #Ghats in Varanasi are steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. The ghats are an integral complement to the #Hindu concept of divinity represented in physical, metaphysical, and supernatural elements. The city’s life revolves around its seven km long walkway which connects all ghats. Some ghats are used for bathing and some are for #cremation. #Assi Ghat, Dashashvamedh Ghat, Manikarnika Ghat, Panchaganga Ghat are some of the major ghats in Banaras.

Akhara Activity

_ABC1939 copy

“#Akhara” can either refer to a training hall used by Indian martial artists. This kind of martial art involves physical exercise and ‘#Kushti’ (wrestling). It is a routine for any ‘#Pahelwan’ (wrestler) to start a day with akhara. Junior pahelwans bound to clean the premises before 6 a.m. and then start a daily activity which include weight lifting, push-ups pull-ups, and other physical exertions.

Streets Of Banaras


The specular part of streets of Banaras is the meandering narrow serpentine alleys and the life which prevails in it. These streets are old city of Banaras, where every end lead to ghats. Small temples,cows,people,monkeys,cloths,old houses, and other numerous events are part of this place.